System, Surroundings, Boundary, & Closed Systems
A fixed amount of mass. No mass can cross the boundary of the system.
The fluid within the cylinder of a piston-and-cylinder device is an example of a closed system with a moving boundary.
The system boundary is indicated on the diagram by the dashed, black line.
we have chosen to study and the surroundings are everything else in the universe. The system boundary separates the system from the surroundings.
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